Association Between Heavy Backpack Usage and Spinal Deformities Among Grade IV Students in San Vicente Elementary School, Biñan, Laguna of Academic Year 2013 – 2014

Heavy Backpack Usage

Over 92% of children in the United States carry backpacks that exceed 10 to 15 per cent of their body weight, many of which are at risk of backache (Rodriguez-Oviedo et. al., 2012).

In the past few years, there has been a growing concern among teachers, school administrators, parents,and health care professionals over the effect of school backpacks on spinal and shoulder problems in children and adolescents (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2006Balague, Skovron, Nordin, Dutoit, Pol, and Waldburger, 1995Grimmer, Williams, Gill, 1999.Iyer, 2001, Negrini and Carabalona,2002Rateau2004Wiersman, Wall, and Foad, 2003 in Moore, 2007).

Chronic musculoskeletal pain in school children, caused by the weight of carry-on items in the school backpack, has been established as a significant problem (Guyer, 2001). Pain represents a symptom, not a sign. Though the perception of pain is very personal and subjective, several factors probably affect pain among school children who carry backpacks including the actual weight carried, body mass index, percent body fat, muscular strength, exercise habits, smoking habits, diet and nutrition, mood, design of shoes worn, posture and gait, and presence or absence of scoliosis (Iyer, 2000).

While research indicates that thousands of backpack injuries result yearly from factors other than carrying the backpack (eg, tripping over them, taking them off improperly, straps getting entangled in bicyclegears, etc),(American Academy of Pediatrics, 2006; Wiersman, Wall, and Foad, 2003; Lockhart, Jacobs, and Orsmond, 2004), the primary concern of many school personnel and parents is the long-term use of heavy backpacks as the routine method of carrying books and other articles to, from, and at school which may negatively influence one’s spinal curvature (in Moore, 2007 Ramona, 2010).

Several studies prove that the posture of the spine changes when the weight of the backpack increases (Cottalorda,, 2004). This is reflected with spinal deformities that usually occur during the juvenile age, often diagnosed as Scoliosis, Kyphosis and Lordosis, or a combination of both (Ramova, 2010). However, while it is proven that adolescents who suffer from back pain will probably have chronic back pain as adults, there is no sufficient evidence as to our knowledge demonstrating a relationship between the development of spinal deviation and the weight of the backpack.

Early detection is a key to the successful management of treating spinal deformities and preventing its progression. In lieu with this, it is of grave importance to realize that aside from known causes of pediatric spinal deformities, it is a must to put emphasis on the children’s modern way of life which may further aggravate or directly cause one’s spinal condition.

At this juncture, the researchers of the department of Pediatrics have decided to conduct a study entitled: Association Between Heavy Backpack Usage and Spinal Deformities Among Grade IV Students in San Vicente Elementary School, Biñan, Laguna of Academic Year 2013 – 2014 which aims to determine the association between heavy backpack usage and spinal deformities among Grade IV students.

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Being Both

Frank and Medina Frank and Medina

(Note: Today I’m pleased to share this space with guest blogger Frank Fredericks.)

I recently read Susan Katz Miller’s Being Both, which is a practical, story-based guide on the many options interfaith couples have, with a particular focus on the feasibility of raising children in more than one faith tradition.

Being in an interfaith marriage of my own as a Millennial, I was fascinated by the different approaches offered, but at times felt like the discourse within its pages was for Gen X’ers, who are now raising children, whether toddlers or teens, and Boomers, the generation before them.  The challenges presented to them as interfaith couples include communal acceptance, birth and coming of age rituals, and ultimately identity in adulthood.  I believe Millennials will be facing slightly different challenges.

While reading, I reflected on my own marriage with Medina, who is a Muslim of Afghan and…

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I cut my first C-Section

Posted: March 11, 2015 in Uncategorized

Barefoot Whispers

That title should be in all-caps. Because I am THAT excited!

My first rotation in third year med school was OBGYN. I delivered a baby before I even know how to put up an IV. And now, my first rotation of Internship is OBGYN, and this time the big milestone is delivering babies via C-section.

first cs

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On Watching the movie ‘Starting Over Again’

Posted: January 23, 2015 in Uncategorized

Brilliantly reviewed. Must-read. ^_^

Taking Chances

Taking Chances:

“On Watching the movie ‘Starting Over Again'”

This is a continuation of an earlier blog post:

Starting Over Again movie from Star Cinema with Piolo Pascual and Toni Gonzaga as the lead stars Starting Over Again movie from Star Cinema with Piolo Pascual and Toni Gonzaga as the lead stars

If there’s one movie that Starting Over Again  has a similar resemblance to, it’s My Amnesia Girl.

My Amnesia Girl. My Amnesia Girl. Aside from Toni Gonzaga, My Amnesia Girl had a number of similarities to Starting Over Again. Toni’s character Irene, who was dumped in My Amnesia Girl, was reincarnated as Ginny in Starting Over Again. This time, it’s her turn to leave her beloved Marco played by Piolo.

My Amnesia had the pick-up lines; Starting had the quotable quotes.

My Amnesia had JLC leaving Toni during their wedding out of fear of failure; Starting had Toni leaving Piolo during a prelude to a wedding — the proposal — out of fear of his predicted failure.

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My Japanese N3DS is here.

Posted: December 27, 2014 in Uncategorized

Fall Wonderland

Posted: December 13, 2014 in Uncategorized

5 Ways To Generate Blog Post Ideas

Posted: October 29, 2014 in Uncategorized

101 Books

This marks my 954th post on 101 Books.

Four years ago, I would’ve laughed if you told me I would publish that many posts on this blog. How could I possibly write 954 posts about a list of books?

But you’d be surprised at how relatively easy it is to come up with topics once you make a habit out of coming up with topics. I’ve figured out a few ways to build brainstorming into my everyday life, without taking up a chunk of time I don’t have.

That’s really helped me generate new ideas for the blog, so I thought I’d share a few of my tips with you guys. If you have a blog, maybe you might find one or two worth your time.

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A Moment: The Nurse and the Med Student

Posted: October 29, 2014 in Uncategorized

Barefoot Whispers

She was a professional nurse at our hospital, not much older than me, and with no time during shift-work to see her private gynaecologist, she made the scary decision to come to the hospital’s gynae-clinic (scary because she would most certainly be seen first by an inept medical student before seeing the specialist).

I had to page her when I was ready for her, and while waiting for her to arrive I went through her latest results. I saw that on the same day as her last Pap smear, she had had an HIV-test. It was her six-month follow-up test after an injury on duty.

It was a moment that reminded me how connected healthcare workers are. We work long and strange hours that cause us to neglect our own health. We expose ourselves to the flavour-of-the-season bugs. In the heat of the moment resuscitating a patient we are at high…

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It was during the cold nights of December that I got to experience Papulex as my facial wash on my sleepless nights as an intern on duty. At times like this, it is almost impossible to stick to a beauty product that will help you from having any pimples or worse, acne, into appearing especially when you need to always look neat and clean in front of your clients.

Thanks to my dear sister and co-intern, Doc Cathy, who shared me to use Papulex, made especially for acne prone skin, that I realized that anything is possible.

Papulex is actually a cleansing gel rather than a foaming cleanser enriched with the following ingredients like Aqua, Decyl Glucoside, Glycerin and Citric Acid, that gives you an instant glow after wash, plus the benefits of clearing blemishes away and purifying your skin. It makes your skin firmer and gives off a fresher vibe as well.

Recommended by my dermatologist, I never had the chance to immediately buy this product before because it’s quite expensive as compared to other local brands we are familiar of. But after using this product, and even trying other facial wash (including Kojic soap), I figured that it’s worth every cent.

Papulex is the revolutionized version of the facial wash that we used as part of our beauty regimen to wash off dirt and impurities. It is a soap free cleansing gel, that has a thick consistency and bubbles immediately with rubbing and minimal water.

This facial brand was actually made in France and marketed internationally including Singapore, Philippines, Australia, Hong Kong and Malaysia. Manufactured by Sinclair Pharma France, it is one of the imported brands made locally available in Watson’s nationwide.

Price starts at PhP700 as a minimum, but is subject to change. Enclosed in a 150 mL container, the product could last for two months with minimal use which I found reasonable enough.

I bought mine from the clinic, after realizing its worth from spending a lot in buying beauty products online.

It’s a relief to finally stick to a daily cleanser that is gentle on your skin but at the same time protects you from breakouts. I’m glad to find my new best friend for facial wash and that is Papulex. Try it for yourself and see the difference.

***Disclaimer: This is a personal blog review of the product, not meant to advertise or sell. It is merely based on the author’s experience upon using it. Thank you.

Image  —  Posted: October 3, 2014 in Beauty, Cosmo Girl, Daily Advices, Dear Sterling, Healthy Options, Loving L♥I♥F♥E, Makeovers ♥


Currently, I’m reading a book entitled “What Makes A Winner” written by Whit Criswell, and it is actually a combination of inspiring ideas and principles adapted from the Bible for business and life. For me, it’s more of a “wake-up call book” to call my attention of what I’ve been focusing on with my life and I must commend the author for publishing a book which is worth reading for.


Being smart and quite a perfectionist before never gave me a chance to have a lot of real friends. When I was young, I thought it was my problem to be always “misunderstood”, perhaps because I was a bit more tactful and opinionated at a lot of things, and sometimes I was so naive that when I tend to praise people, it comes as something fake or with a hidden agenda. But honestly, it was just a pure compliment that I’m giving to them because I was brought up with the kind of world where you don’t expect people to appreciate you for everything. And I thought that people needs that — an honest compliment, a praise, a commendation or even a thank you. 

As I grow up, I realized that I never have to blame myself for what other people may think of me, but I should always be aware of my actions and my words. The thing is, when I’m not doing anything wrong in my conscience, then there’s nothing to be worried about. Worry, as I’ve learned, is a deal-breaker. I may have been clueless of who my real friends are when I was a growing adolescent, but as I aged and matured, I learned that you cannot please everyone and true friends will be willing to stay with you no matter how many stones people will throw at you.

I’ve been learning that for the past 27 years, and one favorite quote I learned from my MDS sister was “At my age, I already establish the people who stay in my life and the people who will just be passing through”. I finally understood what it meant having to face all kinds of adversity, that yes, in our daily lives, we will meet different types of people with various circumstances, but it will only be up to our choice whether we let them be a blessing to us or a lesson.

The best thing that you have to be wary about is how deep you know yourself as a person. I often ask myself if what I’m doing is worth for my growth as an individual. Will the 10-year older me be happy with the actions of my present me? I re-evaluate often as far as I can to see how I am changing as a person. Will that be even for the better or only for the worse? As to what we have believed that change is inevitable, adapting to it is a must.

Hence, upon facing difficulties, I’ve started anew by letting go of the negative things in my life and realized that there are so much good in this world to begin with. I made this Tumblr account where I kept on posting random things about life and the world as people may have understood it, and upon glancing back to all what I’ve posted, I was happy that my blog is that other part of myself which brings out the good in me. It was like an intangible friend whose words and advices, and photos reflect so much beauty in a person. The life, the dreams, the daily advice – all existed in my blog.

And if I was just another reader, I would have thought that the blogger was indeed an incredible human being who had so much going on with her life, that regardless of her struggles in life, she was that person who’s willing to be a light to others. That’s how I see her blog. That’s how I see my blog. And that’s how I wanted to keep it – good vibes and all.

Write something as if you are talking to yourself. As Whit Criswell explains in his book “My self-talk influences my self esteem. We are constantly talking to ourselves unconsciously.” What we write will always be a reflection of what we are – heart and soul.

As a face is reflected in water, so the heart reflects the real person.

Proverbs 27:19

I learned that being an optimist is seeing that from the hundreds of people I’ve encountered in my life, there was about ¾ of them who’ll always see me as an inspiration, a beautiful person inside out, someone that people would look up to. And rather than focusing on all the negatives, I am starting with what makes my life positive, continuing to be better every day and preparing my soul for the big day when I’ll have a chance to face the Lord and tell Him how I made my journey worthwhile.

Random Thoughts
by Doctor Shei